Discover the science behind the effects and benefits of CBD oil with our full list of cannabidiol research. Understanding cannabis has never been easier.
Research on cannabidiol has gone a long way since it first started in the late 1980s. With the progressing legalization across the United States, scientists are now eager to delve deeper into the effects and benefits of CBD oil and the cannabis plant in general.
But with so much research on cannabidiol and its therapeutic qualities, it may be difficult to maneuver the maze of research scattered across the web.
We’ve compiled the most important studies in cannabis and CBD research for you.From pain to anxiety to autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, we’ve got you covered.
If you have any questions or want to provide valuable insight into the discussed topics, feel free to leave your feedback in the comment section at the bottom!
Full List of Cannabidiol Research
In this article, we cover the following areas of cannabidiol research:
- Cannabidiol and anxiety
- Cannabidiol and psychosis
- Cannabidiol and arthritis
- Cannabidiol and cancer
- Cannabidiol and diabetes
- Cannabidiol and epilepsy
- Cannabidiol and nausea
- Cannabidiol and pain relief
Let’s get started.
Research on Cannabidiol for Anxiety
Cannabidiol holds great potential for treating a wide range of mental disorders, but anxiety is where CBD excels.
While having anxiety may be a risk factor for recreational cannabis use, CBD-only extracts can effectively curb anxious feelings and help sufferers achieve a clear state of mind.
For example, a 2010 study suggested that cannabidiol could significantly reduce post-speech anxiety in people with social anxiety disorders. Brain scans of the subjects showed changes in the areas of the brain responsible for experiencing anxiety.
This study was followed by another one which further supported the claims about anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol.
Research also suggests that CBD oil can be an effective antidepressant. However, this data comes from animal models.
Below you’ll find the most important studies on CBD for anxiety.
Notable Studies on CBD for Anxiety:
Neural Basis of Anxiolytic Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: a Preliminary Report
Antidepressant-like and Anxiolytic-like Effects of Cannabidiol: a Chemical Compound of Cannabis Sativa
Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders
Cannabidiol, a Cannabis Sativa Constituent, as an Anxiolytic Drug
Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-naive Social Phobia Patients
Central Anandamide Deficiency Predicts Stress-induced Anxiety: Behavioral Reversal Through Endocannabinoid Augmentation
The Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol on Chronically Stressed Mice Depends on Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System
Cannabidiol Regulation of Emotion and Emotional Memory Processing: Relevance for Treating Anxiety-related and Substance Abuse Disorders
Effects of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
Effect of Prior Foot Shock Stress and Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiolic Acid, and Cannabidiol on Anxiety-like Responding in the Light-dark Emergence Test in Rats
A Systematic Review of Plant-Derived Natural Compounds for Anxiety Disorders
Plant-based Medicines for Anxiety Disorders, Part 2: a Review of Clinical Studies With Supporting Preclinical Evidence
Cannabidiol Does Not Dampen Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Adults
Last but not least, CBD can counter the psychoactive effects of THC — the primary psychoactive cannabinoid. At higher doses, THC can backfire, having a negative effect on anxiety. This is why modern cannabis breeders aim at increasing the CBD content in their cannabis strains to reduce the anxiety-inducing effects for their customers.
Research on Cannabidiol for Psychosis
Recent research on CBD has shown it to be a potential new treatment for neurological disorders like psychosis.
CBD might not be as potent as many prescription antipsychotic drugs, but it certainly has fewer side effects and is more cost effective compared to other medications with similar efficacy.
According to PsychCentral, CBD may beat antipsychotics at treating schizophrenia — however, we’re still awaiting more research to confirm or disprove this.
The greatest advantage of CBD oil over conventional antipsychotic drugs is the aforementioned lack of serious side effects. Prescription anxiety pills can cause social withdrawal, loss of motivation, and recurring anxiety. These adverse reactions aren’t a problem with CBD.
On top of that, CBD doesn’t only mask the symptoms of psychosis. Instead, it seems to reach the root of the illness and bring mental health back to a normal state by regulating the endocannabinoid system, and the neurotransmitters it interacts with like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.
Notable Studies on Cannabidiol for Psychosis:
Cannabis Drug Shows Promise in Treating Schizophrenia
Cannabidiol, a Cannabis Sativa Constituent, as an Antipsychotic Drug
Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Psychosis
Medical use of Cannabis. Cannabidiol: a New Light for Schizophrenia?
Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia: Therapeutic Prospects
Cannabidiol Monotherapy for Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia
Marijuana Compound Treats Schizophrenia with Fewer Side Effects: Clinical Trial
Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model
Cannabidiol Enhances Anandamide Signaling and Alleviates Psychotic Symptoms of Schizophrenia
A Critical Review of the Antipsychotic Effects of Cannabidiol: 30 Years of Translational Investigation
Cannabis with High Cannabidiol Content is Associated with Fewer Psychotic Experiences
Neuronal and Molecular Effects of Cannabidiol on the Mesolimbic Dopamine System: Implications for Novel Schizophrenia Treatments
Antipsychotic-like Effects of Cannabidiol and Rimonabant: Systematic Review of Animal Studies
Clearing the Smoke: What do We Know About Adolescent Cannabis Use and Schizophrenia?
Peripheral Endocannabinoid System Dysregulation in First-episode Psychosis
Study: Cannabidiol Holds Promise for Treating Psychosis
The Yin and Yang of Cannabis-induced Psychosis: the Actions of Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in Rodent Models of Schizophrenia
Potential Protective Effects of Cannabidiol on Neuroanatomical Alterations in Cannabis Users and Psychosis: a Critical Review
Research on Cannabidiol for Arthritis
Arthritis is a complex illness involving chronic inflammation of one or more joints in the body. There are over 100 different types of arthritis, but inflammation is their common denominator.
Cannabidiol’s well-known anti-inflammatory effects has lead researchers to test CBD as a potential natural alternative to conventional arthritis treatment options. Even though cannabidiol research in terms of arthritis is still in its infancy, the current results are promising, to say the least.
Another study have found that CBD’s indirect interaction with the endocannabinoid system can reduce the pain caused by several forms of arthritis, including the prevalent rheumatoid arthritis. However, it is unclear whether this is caused by CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties or by its analgesic effects.
All in all, cannabidiol has a great chance of becoming a natural and safe alternative to treating long-term joint inflammation and various forms of arthritis.
Notable Studies on Cannabidiol for Arthritis:
Cannabidiol as an Emergent Therapeutic Strategy for Lessening the Impact of Inflammation on Oxidative Stress
Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoid-based Drugs
Oral Anti-inflammatory Activity of Cannabidiol, a Non-psychoactive Constituent of Cannabis, in Acute Carrageenan-induced Inflammation in the Rat Paw
The Abnormal Cannabidiol Analogue O-1602 Reduces Nociception in a Rat Model of Acute Arthritis Via the Putative Cannabinoid Receptor GPR55
Preliminary Assessment of the Efficacy, Tolerability and Safety of a Cannabis-based Medicine (Sativex) in the Treatment of Pain Caused by Rheumatoid Arthritis
The Nonpsychoactive Cannabis Constituent Cannabidiol Is an Oral Anti-arthritic Therapeutic in Murine Collagen-induced Arthritis
Involvement of the Endocannabinoid System in Osteoarthritis Pain
Attenuation of Early Phase Inflammation by Cannabidiol Prevents Pain and Nerve Damage in Rat Osteoarthritis
Suffering from joint inflammation? Explore our guide to CBD oils for arthritis and learn how cannabidiol can help.
Research on Cannabidiol for Cancer
In this section, we dive into the latest research on cannabidiol and cancer.
The medical community has already investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD, but they’re currently trying to figure out the reason behind cannabidiol’s ability to inhibit cell proliferation in certain types of cancer.
A study conducted in 2007 by California Pacific Medical Center concluded that CBD could potentially control the spread of malignant breast tumors and stop metastasis — the process in which cancerous cells spread to different regions of the body.
Since that discovery, other studies have suggested that cannabidiol has strong inhibitory effects on different types of cancer, including leukemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, and certain forms of brain tumors.
CBD has also been shown to stop the growth of benign tumors as well. Still, the exact inhibitory mechanisms behind the anti-tumor properties of cannabidiol remain unknown.
Notable Studies on Cannabidiol for Cancer:
Inhibition of Colon Carcinogenesis by a Standardized Cannabis Sativa Extract With High Content of Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol, a Non-psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells Through a Multitarget Effect
Gamma-irradiation Enhances Apoptosis Induced by Cannabidiol, a Non-psychotropic Cannabinoid, in Cultured Hl-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells
Cannabidiol as a Novel Inhibitor of Id-1 Gene Expression in Aggressive Breast Cancer Cells
Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy
Cannabinoids for Cancer Treatment: Progress and Promise
Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma
Cannabidiol Inhibits Growth and Induces Programmed Cell Death in Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus-infected Endothelium
Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of p22phox and Nox4 Expression
Triggering of the Trpv2 Channel by Cannabidiol Sensitizes Glioblastoma Cells to Cytotoxic Chemotherapeutic Agents
Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version
Cannabidiol as Potential Anticancer Drug
A Comparative Study on Cannabidiol-induced Apoptosis in Murine Thymocytes and El-4 Thymoma Cells
Cannabidiol-induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: a Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of P22phox and Nox4 Expression
Cannabidiol Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis Via Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Thc:cbd Extract and Thc Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-related Pain
Induction of Apoptosis by Cannabinoids in Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells Is Phosphatase Dependent
Anticancer Activity of Anandamide in Human Cutaneous Melanoma Cells
The research on the anti-tumor properties of cannabidiol gains momentum each month. If you don’t want to miss anything related to cannabidiol research in every area of science, sign up to our mailing list and keep your weekly dose of CBD news in your inbox.
Research on Cannabidiol for Diabetes
Diabetes is one of the most troubling diseases on society and the actual term “diabetes” can refer to different metabolic conditions related to high blood sugar.
Type I diabetes is triggered when the body cannot produce insulin, a natural hormone taking part in the absorption of sugar into the bloodstream.
Type II diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t respond properly to insulin, which results in increased blood sugar levels and widespread inflammation and damage.
According to recent studies, CBD and other cannabinoids may serve as potential medications for treating both types of diabetes. Cannabidiol has a positive effect on an array of metabolic disorders, but its influence on diabetes is what engages scientists the most.
In addition, CBD has been shown to prevent diabetes-induced blindness by stimulating the activity of an enzyme known as glutamine synthetase. Also, cannabidiol seems to mitigate the symptoms of albuminuria, a disease that’s strongly linked to diabetic nephropathy, a progressive kidney disease caused by chronic diabetes.
Notable Studies on Cannabidiol for Diabetes:
Cannabidiol Lowers Incidence of Diabetes in Non-obese Diabetic Mice
Neuroprotective and Blood-retinal Barrier-preserving Effects of Cannabidiol in Experimental Diabetes
Cannabinoids Alter Endothelial Function in the Zucker Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes
Cannabidiol Arrests Onset of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice
Activation of the Peripheral Endocannabinoid System in Human Obesity
The Endocannabinoid System and Plant-derived Cannabinoids in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications
Cannabidiol Protects Retinal Neurons by Preserving Glutamine Synthetase Activity in Diabetes
Regulation, Function, and Dysregulation of Endocannabinoids in Models of Adipose and β-Pancreatic Cells and in Obesity and Hyperglycemia
Endocannabinoids and the Control of Energy Homeostasis
Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Blockade Ameliorates Albuminuria in Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy
Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoids in Metabolic Disorders with Focus on Diabetes
Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study
Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Changes in Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-treated Type 2 Diabetic Rats
Cannabidiol Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Inflammatory and Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Diabetic Retinopathy: Role of Inflammation and Potential Therapies for Anti-Inflammation
The Endocannabinoid System in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
Cannabinoid-mediated Modulation of Neuropathic Pain and Microglial Accumulation in a Model of Murine Type I Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain
The Impact of Marijuana Use on Glucose, Insulin, and Insulin Resistance among US Adults
Research on Cannabidiol for Epilepsy
Recent studies have pointed to Cannabidiol as an effective treatment option for epilepsy, even for its intractable (treatment-resistant) froms. Researchers suggest that CBD might have a measurable and, more importantly, statistically significant positive effect in alleviating the symptoms of epilepsy and reducing the number and intensity of seizures.
While the majority of cannabidiol research for epilepsy revolves around animals and in vitro models, FDA-approved trials on human patients have already proved CBD to be remarkably effective for treating seizures, especially among children.
As mentioned, CBD may succeed where traditional medications fail. This involves the cases of treatment-resistant epilepsy, such as Dravet syndrome, a rare form of epilepsy in children. These findings are critically important for parents whose children respond weakly or not at all to pharmaceutical anti-seizure drugs.
Notable Studies on Cannabidiol for Epilepsy:
Cannabidiol: Antiepileptic Drug Comparisons and Interactions in Experimentally Induced Seizures in Rats
Report of a Parent Survey of Cannabidiol-enriched Cannabis Use in Pediatric Treatment-resistant Epilepsy
The Role of Potassium Bk Channels in Anticonvulsant Effect of Cannabidiol in Pentylenetetrazole and Maximal Electroshock Models of Seizure in Mice
Cannabidiol Exerts Anti-convulsant Effects in Animal Models of Temporal Lobe and Partial Seizures
Cannabidiol Displays Anti-epileptiform and Antiseizure Properties in Vitro and in Vivo
Report of a Parent Survey of Cannabidiol-enriched Cannabis Use in Pediatric Treatment-resistant Epilepsy
Cannabis, Cannabidiol, and Epilepsy: from Receptors to Clinical Response
Nonpsychotropic Plant Cannabinoids, Cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Cannabidiol (CBD), Activate and Desensitize Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Channels in Vitro: Potential for the Treatment of Neuronal Hyperexcitability
Chronic Administration of Cannabidiol to Healthy Volunteers and Epileptic Patients
Could Cannabidiol be a Treatment Option for Intractable Childhood and Adolescent Epilepsy?
Therapeutic Effects of Cannabinoids in Animal Models of Seizures, Epilepsy, Epileptogenesis, and Epilepsy-related Neuroprotection
Pharmacology of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy
Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure
The Cannabinoids as Potential Antiepileptics
Hypnotic and Antiepileptic Effects of Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol Exerts Anti-convulsant Effects in Animal Models of Temporal Lobe and Partial Seizures
Cannabidivarin (cbdv) Suppresses Pentylenetetrazole (ptz)-induced Increases in Epilepsy-related Gene Expression
Seizing an Opportunity for the Endocannabinoid System
Endocannabinoid System Protects Against Cryptogenic Seizures
The thriving world of cannabidiol research makes people crave more knowledge about the nature of the cannabis plant and the way how its ingredients can help those who have already been written off by doctors using conventional treatment methods.
Research on Cannabidiol for Nausea
Cannabidiol can help alleviate many symptoms, but nausea is another area where CBD excels.
Although the exact mechanisms behind these properties aren’t fully understood, scientists believe that the large number of cannabidiol’s positive effects come from its interactions with the endocannabinoid system.
The first trials investigating the antiemetic properties of CBD were conducted on animals, mostly on rats and shrews. Researchers discovered that CBD was indeed able to suppress nausea and vomiting in those models.
More recent clinical studies conducted on human subjects support the above findings. Cannabidiol has been proven to regulate vomiting and alleviate nausea-like symptoms in a wide range of health conditions. On top of that, scientists also confirmed that CBD can help reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients.
There are currently several patented medicines basing on cannabidiol in the United States, and in European countries such as the Netherlands, doctors have been prescribing CBD-rich extracts for nausea for several years now.
Notable Studies on Cannabidiol for Nausea:
Cannabidiol, a Non-psychotropic Component of Cannabis, Attenuates Vomiting and Nausea-like Behaviour Via Indirect Agonism of 5-HT(1A) Somatodendritic Autoreceptors in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus
Regulation of Nausea and Vomiting by Cannabinoids
The Effects of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabinol on Motion-induced Emesis in Suncus Murinus
Regulation of Nausea and Vomiting by Cannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System
Preliminary Efficacy and Safety of an Oromucosal Standardized Cannabis Extract in Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting
Suppression of Lithium Chloride-induced Conditioned Gaping (a Model of Nausea-induced Behaviour) in Rats (using the Taste Reactivity Test) With Metoclopramide Is Enhanced by Cannabidiolic Acid
The Prevalence and Incidence of Medicinal Cannabis on Prescription in the Netherlands
Interaction Between Non-psychotropic Cannabinoids in Marihuana: Effect of Cannabigerol (CBG) on the Anti-nausea or Anti-emetic Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Rats and Shrews
Cannabidiol, a Non-psychoactive Component of Cannabis and Its Synthetic Dimethylheptyl Homolog Suppress Nausea in an Experimental Model With Rats
Effect of Combined Oral Doses of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA) on Acute and Anticipatory Nausea in Rat Models
Cannabidiolic Acid Prevents Vomiting in Suncus Murinus and Nausea-induced Behaviour in Rats by Enhancing 5-HT1A Receptor Activation
Research on Cannabidiol for Pain Relief
CBD can be an effective mild-to-moderately strong painkiller, as research suggests. Doctors are prescribing cannabidiol as an analgesic for patients with chronic pain, neuropathic pains, migraines, and more.
While the exact mechanism behind CBD’s analgesic properties are yet to be fully understood, this natural compound is considered one of the safest cannabinoids and has been shown to produce synergy with other cannabis compounds in cases of severe pain and inflammation.
CBD and other cannabinoids have also been found to have effective painkilling properties for terminal cancer sufferers who don’t respond to opioid analgesic any longer. These findings imply that CBD might be an effective alternative to powerful prescription drugs that lay waste to the already ravaged health of terminally ill patients.
Notable Studies on Cannabidiol for Nausea:
A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study of THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray in Combination With the Existing Treatment Regimen, in the Relief of Central Neuropathic Pain in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain
An Open-label Extension Study to Investigate the Long-term Safety and Tolerability of THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray and Oromucosal Thc Spray in Patients With Terminal Cancer-related Pain Refractory to Strong Opioid Analgesics
Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes
Pain Relief with Cannabinoids: the Importance of Endocannabinoids and Cannabinoids for Therapy
Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-related Pain
Cannabidiol Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats
Cannabidiol – Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interactions on Acute Pain and Locomotor Activity
Non-psychoactive Cannabinoids Modulate the Descending Pathway of Antinociception in Anaesthetized Rats Through Several Mechanisms of Action
Cannabinoids Suppress Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain by Targeting Α3 Glycine Receptors
Meta-analysis of Cannabis Based Treatments for Neuropathic and Multiple Sclerosis-related Pain
Sativex: Clinical Efficacy and Tolerability in the Treatment of Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis and Neuropathic Pain
Cannabinoids for Neuropathic Pain
Neuropathic Orofacial Pain: Cannabinoids as a Therapeutic Avenue
Oromucosal Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for Neuropathic Pain Associated With Multiple Sclerosis: an Uncontrolled, Open-label, 2-year Extension Trial
The Non-psychoactive Cannabis Constituent Cannabidiol Is an Orally Effective Therapeutic Agent in Rat Chronic Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain
Vanilloid TRPV1 Receptor Mediates The Antihyperalgesic Effect Of The Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, Cannabidiol, In A Rat Model Of Acute Inflammation
Cannabidiol Inhibits Paclitaxel-induced Neuropathic Pain Through 5-HT1A) Receptors Without Diminishing Nervous System Function or Chemotherapy Efficacy
Sativex Successfully Treats Neuropathic Pain Characterised by Allodynia: a Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial
Cannabis, Pain, and Sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic Clinical Trials of Sativex, a Cannabis-based Medicine
If you’re in need of safe and effective pain relief, the cannabidiol may be your best bet. There’s much evidence supporting the strong analgesic properties of CBD. There are also many CBD oils on the market to choose from, which might be overwhelming for those just getting started with cannabis.
Did you just see yourself when reading the above? Then you need to read our guide on choosing CBD oil for pain relief — with CFAH’s recommendations based on our own experience.
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