Best CBD Pills for Pain Relief: Choosing The Right Hemp Capsules for Inflammation

Illustration for CBD Pills for Pain
Written by Nina Julia | Last updated: November 4, 2021

CBD is taking the world of medicine and health supplements by the storm. Some users swear by it, claiming CBD helped them shake the traditional treatments off.

CBD’s pain-killing and anti-inflammatory properties are backed by scientific studies; the cannabinoid comes in many forms, including oils, gummies, vapes, topicals, and capsules.

Speaking of CBD capsules, this is probably the most common form of all supplements. They are convenient, easy to take, and come with a premeasured dose of CBD in each serving.

CBD capsules can help you ease pain and inflammation, but there are too many poorly manufactured pills offered on the market. Since the hemp industry remains unregulated, customers need to take responsibility in their own hands — researching the brands they’re looking to purchase CBD from, such as CBD pills for pain.

If you’re in a rush and don’t have the time to do the legwork, we’ve already done the hard work for you, evaluating 10 reputable brands that offer premium CBD pills for pain and other health conditions.

We’ll also explain the mechanism of action behind CBD’s analgesic effects.

Best CBD Pills for Pain and Inflammation: Top 10 Brands in 2021

  1. Royal CBD – Best CBD Pills for Pain Overall
  2. Gold Bee – Best Organic CBD Pills for Pain Relief
  3. Green Roads – Runner Up
  4. Hemp Bombs – Best Pure CBD
  5. CBDfx – Best Variety
  6. cbdMD – Good Value
  7. Charlotte’s Web – Most Popular Brand
  8. PlusCBD Capsules – Largest Size
  9. Medterra – Best for Daytime Use
  10. Joy Organics – Best Customer Service

1. Royal CBD

Royal CBD Capsules

Royal CBD capsules are made with organic ingredients, including hemp extract, MCT oil, and a vegan softgel shell. They contain full-spectrum CBD, so you’re getting the whole range of supportive cannabinoids and terpenes aside from the CBD. They’re available in one potency — 25 mg — making it an ideal choice for experienced consumers or those who weigh more than an average user.

The 25 mg potency is also a decent option for pain management, as it can address more serious symptoms and are more cost-effective in the long run. On the other hand, we’d love to see a 10 mg version from the company; it would be a nice nod towards beginner users.

In our recent review for Royal CBD, all of their products are tested for potency and purity in a third-party laboratory to ensure the top quality and transparency standards.

Pros:

  • Organic hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • 25 mg of CBD per capsule
  • Vegan
  • Gluten-free
  • Third-party tested for quality and safety

Cons:

  • Only one potency option is available

2. Gold Bee

Gold Bee CBD Ful Spectrum SoftGel

Gold Bee is a California-based company founded by cannabis aficionados and superfood specialists. Similar to Royal CBD, the Gold Bee brand specializes in organic products that are crafted to high-quality standards.

The Gold Bee CBD capsules are made with the same full-spectrum extracts as the company’s oils. They also contain the same dose per serving — 40 mg — so that users can reap the same benefits in an easy-to-carry product. You can take them even if you’re vegan because they’re made without gelatin.

These capsules are a great pick for those who are looking for a strong daily dose of CBD due to the high severity of pain or higher body weight.

Pros:

  • Organic hemp
  • CO2 extraction
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Very strong: 40 mg of CBD per capsule
  • Vegan
  • Created by superfood specialists
  • Third-party tested for quality and safety

Cons:

  • No low-strength capsules

3. Green Roads

GreenRoad Capsules product image

Green Roads is one of the largest private-owned CBD brands in North America according to the Brightfield Research Group Report. They stock a wide range of pharmaceutical-grade CBD supplements, such as oils, gummies, topicals, capsules, and even pet products.

The Green Roads CBD capsules are available in three options:

  • Regular: 25 mg of full-spectrum CBD
  • Relax : 25 mg of CBD + GABA + 5-HTP
  • Sleep: 25 mg of CBD + Melatonin

Although there are no low-potency or extra-strength capsules, it’s good to see a company that tries to address different health needs with its unique formulations. Full-spectrum CBD leverages the entourage effect, and with the help of those extra ingredients, this mechanism is even more pronounced.

Pros:

  • US-grown hemp
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • 25 mg per capsule
  • Suited for different health needs

Cons:

  • Limited potency options
  • The “Sleep” version contains too much melatonin per capsule in our opinion
  • More expensive (per mg of CBD) than competitors

4. Hemp Bombs

Hemp Bombs CBD capsules in white background

Hemp Bombs is a true maverick in the CBD space. The company combines high-quality ingredients with smart marketing, which made them one of the most popular CBD brands in the USA.

The company sells a wide range of CBD capsules. They are available in different sizes, from 8-count to 100-count bottles. You can choose from two strength options — 15 mg and 30 mg — and there’s also a “sleep” option with melatonin.

These are pure CBD capsules, meaning they only contain CBD isolate. Unlike most companies that we’ve reviewed for the best CBD pills for pain, these products don’t evoke the entourage effect, so their dose may not be as effective as the one from full-spectrum capsules.

Pros:

  • Organic hemp
  • Two strengths are available: 15 and 30 mg
  • THC-free
  • Vegan
  • You can buy them in several size options (including sample packs)

Cons:

  • The hemp is imported from Europe
  • No high-strength capsules are available
  • No entourage effect due to the lack of the other hemp compounds

5. CBDfx

CBDfx Capsules product image

CBDfx has several options for its CBD pills for pain. They are sold in 30-count or 60-count bottles, offering 25 mg or 50 mg of CBD per capsule depending on the selected strength. A great thing about this product is that it has been created by pharmacists and reviewed by doctors to ensure that the formulation is safe and effective.

The capsules contain full-spectrum CBD, so similar to other companies in our ranking for the best CBD pills for pain, you’re getting more bang out of your buck, especially with the high-strength version if you’re looking to address severe discomfort. To increase the bioavailability of its pills, CBDfx has suspended them in MCT oil, which is the most effective carrier for cannabinoids.

That being said, there’s little information about the brand on the website. This can make it difficult for hesitant customers to build a relationship with CBDfx, as trust is of paramount importance in this unregulated industry.

Pros:

  • Full-spectrum
  • 25 mg or 50 mg of CBD per capsule
  • Vegan
  • Third-party tested for quality and safety

Cons:

  • No low-strength capsules
  • Little information about the company
  • No formulas that would address specific health needs

6. cbdMD

cbdMD capsules product image

cbdMD offers softgel CBD capsules made from non-GMO, organic, US-grown hemp. These capsules are made with a full-spectrum CBD extract, which is the most desired format among people who use CBD pills for pain. The company is highly transparent, providing batch-specific certificates of analysis on its website.

The cbdMD capsules contain 15, 30, or 50 mg of CBD depending on the selected strength. You can also buy them in larger containers, with up to 100 capsules per bottle. The company claims that it has enriched its capsules with CBG, CBN, and beneficial terpenes, although they don’t specify which terpenes have been used in the formula.

Another problem with this company is that the strengths they use are less obvious than most of the CBD pills for pain we’ve mentioned here. People usually go with doses like 10, 25, or 40 mg per capsule. But, on the other hand, it’s a good alternative if you don’t take standard doses yet still don’t want to switch to CBD oil.

Pros:

  • Organic, US-grown hemp
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Enriched with CBG and CBN
  • 3 strength options
  • Third-party tested for quality and safety

Cons:

  • Priced at the higher end
  • FedEx is the only shipping option

7. Charlotte’s Web

Charlotte's Web Capsules Product

Charlotte’s Web was founded by Stanley Brothers who have popularized CBD in the mainstream media by helping now late Charlotte Figi with her rare form of epilepsy that was resistant to conventional treatments. Since then, the company has become a true powerhouse, offering a broad range of CBD supplements.

The Charlotte’s Web capsules are made with a full-spectrum CBD extract, carrying 15 mg or 25 mg per capsule, depending on the selected potency. You can also choose between 3 bottle sizes: 30ct, 60ct, and 90ct, which is a nice nod towards people who like to buy CBD pills for pain in larger quantities.

However, there are no high-strength options in the company’s collection. Charlotte’s Web also doesn’t have any formulations designed to address unique health goals.

Pros:

  • One of the most popular brands in the world
  • Organic hemp
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • 15 or 25 mg of CBD per capsule
  • 3 bottle sizes
  • Vegan

Cons:

  • No high-strength capsules
  • No formulas that would address specific health needs
  • The company has received a few warning letters from the FDA regarding health claims

8. PlusCBD Capsules

PlusCBD capsules product image with white background

PlusCBD capsules are all about simplicity. This product is formulated with a whole-plant CBD extract that contains all beneficial compounds found in hemp. This includes adjunctive cannabinoids, terpenes, and trace amounts of THC. Each capsule contains a low dose of 10 mg CBD, making it a great choice for those who have never tried CBD in their life.

Unfortunately, the product uses olive oil instead of MCT oil as a carrier, meaning that you may not get the most out of its bioavailability. On top of that, the formula includes carrageenan, which is a known carcinogen despite being approved by the FDA.

Pros:

  • Whole-plant CBD
  • Good brand for beginners (10 mg of CBD per capsule)
  • Third-party tested for potency and purity
  • Simple formula

Cons:

  • No high-strength pills
  • Contains carrageenan
  • Suspended in olive oil

9. Medterra

Mederra Capsules product

Medterra is an artisan company based in California that makes premium CBD products from locally grown hemp. The brand offers a modest selection of CBD pills — infused with 25 mg or 50 mg of CBD. Each potency comes in a 30-count bottle.

This is another company that makes CBD products from pure cannabidiol. Despite carrying a potent dose of CBD per serving, these pills for pain don’t leverage the entourage effect, so their efficacy may not be as pronounced as with whole-plant capsules. On a positive note, the CBD is suspended in MCT oil, which improves its absorption.

Pros:

  • Organic hemp
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Up to 50 mg of CBD per capsule
  • Vegan
  • THC-free
  • Lab-tested for potency and purity

Cons:

  • No entourage effect from other cannabinoids and terpenes
  • A little bit expensive for isolate-based CBD pills

10. Joy Organics

Joy Organics Softgel Capsules Product

Joy Organics is a family-owned brand with a mission to provide premium-quality products to health-conscious CBD users. Joy Smith, the founder of Joy Organics, launched the company because her products were the only ones that were able to relieve her pain.

Similar to Medterra, Joy Organics sells isolate-based CBD pills, so you won’t find any additional cannabinoids and terpenes there. As a result, their potency may not be as high as expected. At 10 or 25 mg of CBD, these capsules are a good choice for relieving minor aches and pains. However, if you’re looking for a product suited for more serious health needs, we recommend checking out the brands that offer full-spectrum capsules (e.g. Royal CBD or Gold Bee).

Pros:

  • US-grown hemp
  • Available in 2 strengths
  • THC-free
  • Vegan
  • Lab-tested for quality and safety

Cons:

  • Not a full-spectrum extract
  • Only one size is available
  • No high-strength capsules

How Did We Choose the Best CBD Pills for this Ranking?

When the 2018 Farm Bill was signed into law, CBD became a booming industry, experiencing a true renaissance after almost 100 years of prohibition.

Every company that could use a patch of land, an extraction lab, and a web designer, started making CBD extracts from hemp.

Unfortunately, not every company knows how to make high-quality products. And since the market is unregulated, doing research is the consumer’s responsibility these days.

To do the legwork for you, we’ve:

  • Run interviews with more than 10 000 readers using email surveys with a response rate of 64%
  • Looked at the customer reviews section of 30 popular brands to see what customers are saying about their products
  • Tested each product ourselves, closing our ranking with the top 10 CBD pills for pain

Below we give you a detailed overview of the quality criteria that we’ve followed when testing these capsules during our trials.

What’s in the Pills?

Softgel Capsules Scattered from Container

CBD pills for pain should be simple, containing a CBD extract, carrier oil, and (usually) a soft gel shell made from gelatin or cellulose. Additionally, the formula may feature supportive ingredients such as complementary herbs and plant extracts that work in synergy with cannabinoids and terpenes.

So, if you want to ensure your CBD pills are safe, you need to check the list of ingredients. Look for terms like “natural” and “pesticide-free” when reading descriptions. US-grown hemp is better than plants imported from overseas because it’s subject to strict quality control measures set out by the USDA.

If you see any suspicious ingredients that you wouldn’t have used at home, you probably don’t need them in your capsules.

Do They Work?

When you take CBD pills for pain, they need to be metabolized by the liver before they can enter your system and start producing their effects. On their way to the bloodstream, they lose some of their potency due to being broken down in the digestive tract, so you need to ensure proper concentration in your capsules.

For example, if your dose of CBD oil is 10 mg twice a day, we suggest that you go for capsules with 25 mg in each piece.

That doesn’t mean you should rush with large doses from the beginning. The best practice is to start low and slowly increase the dose until you notice the difference in how you feel.

Taking more CBD than you need may result in some mild side effects, such as indigestion, dizziness, dry mouth, and appetite fluctuation.

What’s the Source of Hemp?

The source of hemp is the driving factor behind the quality of your CBD capsules. The USA- and Europe-grown hemp is safe because there are special regulatory bodies that supervise the cultivation standards among farmers.

You should steer clear of CBD products that use hemp imported from China because such plants are often grown in contaminated soil, using pesticides and fertilizers to ensure large yields and reduce the growth time.

Hemp is a dynamic bioaccumulator — it will draw every substance from its environment — so the best CBD pills for pain are made from organic hemp that has been grown in clean soil.

Otherwise, the product might be contaminated with heavy metals and the aforementioned toxins.

What Type of Extract do the Capsules Contain?

You can choose from three types of CBD: full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and isolate.

Choosing the best CBD pills for pain boils down to mapping out your priorities and preferences. The full-spectrum type of CBD comes with the best value in terms of its therapeutic efficacy.

Broad-spectrum extracts are pretty much the same; they only lack trace amounts of THC, which are removed after initial extraction.

CBD isolate is just pure CBD that has been separated from the other hemp compounds. It’s odorless, flavorless, and carries the highest dose of CBD per serving. However, due to the lack of other cannabinoids and terpenes, isolates are devoid of the entourage effect — making them less desired among people who take CBD for pain.

The Lab Reports

This is the most essential point on our list of the factors determining the quality of CBD products. Lab test results are important because it proves the product’s chemical profile and purity — confirming that it’s safe for use.

Since the CBD space isn’t regulated by the FDA, companies should turn to third-party laboratories for content analysis and publish the results in the form of certificates of analysis (COA).

Brands that don’t publish these reports might have something to hide about their purity, which isn’t a good indicator of transparency.

Shipping and Return Policies

Customer-friendly policies in terms of shipping and returns can tell you a lot about the company’s attitude toward its clients. If a company offers limited shipping or has strict return policies, they probably don’t see much beyond their pockets.

Price

Customers are spoiled for choice these days, with the abundance of CBD pills on the market. However, you should always make sure that you get exactly what you paid for. Spend some time comparing different brands and their prices to find the best deals for yourself. The price of CBD is assessed by checking the cost per milligram of CBD.

Coupons and Rewards

CBD products are generally more expensive than other OTC supplements. That’s because making CBD extracts requires a lot of time, effort, and money to manufacture a high-quality product.

Hopefully, most companies offer different ways to save money on their goods. You can take advantage of various gift cards, coupon codes, and reward programs, where you collect special points with every purchase; you can later spend them to lower the price of your next bottle of CBD pills.

Reputation

Reputable companies have been around for some time, gathering a community of returning customers — you can easily verify the credibility of your manufacturer by looking at the review sections of their website.

There was a time where hemp brands could write thousands of fake reviews over the weekend. However, customer awareness has matured, and now, most reputable CBD companies use verified third-party reviews systems with real user opinions.

Can I Use CBD Pills for Pain?

CBD pills for pain contain the same active ingredient as other product types — cannabidiol — which has a long list of science-backed benefits for reducing pain and inflammation.

So, the short answer is yes, you can use CBD pills for pain relief, but their effectiveness will be driven by the following variables:

  • Potency
  • Cannabinoid spectrum
  • Carrier oil
  • Supportive ingredients

Pain and inflammation can dramatically change our daily lives. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) filed a report, in which they found that a little over 20% of the U.S. population experienced chronic pain in 2016 — adding up to 50 million people.

The side effects of conventional painkillers, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have made many people switch to natural remedies, such as CBD pills.

Here’s how CBD capsules can work for pain.

How CBD Works

CBD’s therapeutic versatility derives from its interaction with a complex system of receptors and chemical messengers known as the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

This neurochemical network is responsible for maintaining internal balance throughout the body (homeostasis).

The ECS produces its own CBD-like compounds called endocannabinoids. These molecules modulate the activity of the ECS, including the processes controlled by the other systems and organs in your body.

Cannabinoid receptors are found in almost everybody’s tissue, making the ECS a vital tool for controlling a wide range of important biological processes, such as anxiety, stress response, pain and inflammation, sleep cycles, reproduction, mood, memory, appetite, sleep cycles, and more.

CBD interacts with the CB2 receptors in the immune system; this interaction leads to improved communication between the cells of this system. It can also reduce inflammation and reduce the pain associated with it.

Another way CBD works for pain is through the modulation of pain signaling. CBD influences certain receptors in the body that control pain signals, making them less intense and thus reducing physical discomfort.

Last but not least, CBD works to level endocannabinoid deficiencies, which are associated with a lower tolerance for pain aside from being the potential cause of many pain types, such as migraines and headaches, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome among many others.

Research on CBD & Pain

  • In a 2016 study from the European Journal of Pain, the authors concluded that CBD can reduce pain and inflammation in subjects without side effects.
  • A 2020 study on humans that evaluated the effects of CBD on patients with chronic pain found that the analgesic effects of CBD were promising but inconclusive. In some cases, patients didn’t report a significant change in their pain and inflammation markers, while others experienced high levels of pain relief.
  • A 2018 study published in the Frontiers in Veterinary Science found that 2 mg of CBD for every kg of body weight produced beneficial effects for dogs with osteoarthritis. The dogs were treated with CBD for 4 weeks; then, the research team evaluated the results, making it clear that the dogs felt more comfortable after taking CBD, showing increased mobility, activity, and elevated mood. Although the study used an animal model, humans and other animals share the same endocannabinoid system, not to mention common conditions linked to pain.
  • A 2009 research paper found that CBD reduced inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. The authors concluded that CBD helped with certain conditions caused by gut inflammation, such as IBS.
  • As reported by a 2015 study published in Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, CBD demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory actions through its interaction with the ECS.

Why CBD Pills Are Great for Pain

Simply put, CBD pills are a decent option for pain relief because they carry the same active ingredient as CBD oils — but are easier to use, more convenient, discreet, and better for traveling.

Here’s why people take CBD pills for pain instead of other formats.

Convenient Form

Using CBD pills for pain is all about functionality. They don’t have any odor or flavor, and they’re also super easy to carry around in a bag or purse. You don’t need to make any measurements and play with the dropper — you just take your daily dose, swallow the capsules with water, and that’s it.

Ease of Use

Some methods make dosing easier than others — and so is the case for CBD capsules. A right dose of CBD can make a noticeable difference in your experience; it can actually be the driving factor behind the product’s efficacy. Although dosing should be gradual, capsules make it easier because they contain a fixed amount of CBD per serving. CBD companies also include their own serving and dosage instructions that you can read on the bottle’s label.

Discreteness

Using CBD oils or vapes can be inconvenient when you’re around others. This isn’t a problem with CBD oil. Since they look like any other softgel cap, nobody will care that you take your supplements; after all, most people take vitamins and minerals in this form.

Long-Lasting Effects

As mentioned, CBD pills need more time to produce their effects, but since the liver gradually releases CBD into the bloodstream, the effects are also extended in time compared to other forms of consumption — lasting up to 12 hours.

How Many CBD Pills Should I Take for Pain?

Hand Holding Amount of CBD Softgel Capsules

Your optimal dosage will depend on several individual factors, such as your age, gender, weight, metabolism, tolerance, and severity of pain. There’s no one-size-fits-all dosage of CBD pills for pain because everyone is different.

CBD isn’t regulated by the FDA, so they won’t provide their dosage guidelines — shedding the responsibility on the shoulders of consumers.

Finding the right dose requires some experimentation, so the best way is to take the classic low-and-slow approach.

Start with a small dose — up to 5 mg — and gradually increase the amount every few days to check how your body reacts to different doses. Just don’t rush with a large dose right from the start. High doses of CBD may not be necessary to help you manage pain, so you might be overdoing your pills.

According to one study, a dose of 6.2 mg of CBD per day produced similar pain relief in arthritis patients as 62.3 mg per day. However, it’s worth noting that the results varied between patients, underscoring the importance of the individual approach to treating pain with CBD.

What’s the Bioavailability of CBD Pills?

Bioavailability describes the leftover amount of CBD that your body can use after ingestion.

Oral products — including CBD pills — come with the lowest bioavailability of all available formats, reaching 20% at max. This means that if you take 50 mg of CBD, you’ll end up using up to 10 mg. This is the side effect of CBD passing through the gastrointestinal tract.

When Should I Take CBD Pills for Pain?

Similar to dosage, there is no such thing as the best time to take CBD pills for pain. You just take them as needed. When it hurts, take CBD capsules immediately. If you live with chronic pain, start with a morning dose and take CBD throughout the day to prevent flare-ups or ease your discomfort. Some CBD pills are specifically formulated to address pain, so if you have a chronic condition, you may want to look for products with supportive ingredients, such as turmeric or hemp oil as the carrier.

Will CBD Pills Get Me High?

Unless you take marijuana-derived CBD pills, chances of getting high are close to zero. That’s because hemp-derived CBD pills contain no more than 0.3% of THC. At such a low concentration, it’s impossible to achieve an intoxicating effect. Broad-spectrum and isolate-based CBD capsules are completely free of THC, so the high shouldn’t bother you at all.

Key Takeaways on CBD Pills and Pain

People living with chronic inflammation, which prevents them from partaking in their favorite activities or causes health problems like insomnia, often choose CBD pills as their daily driver.

If pain is your regular companion, the health benefits provided by CBD should, at least, help you reduce physical discomfort due to its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

Aside from easing pain and reducing inflammation, CBD works to help your endocannabinoid system maintain homeostasis throughout the body, including a normal pain threshold and proper signaling to the brain.

If the taste of CBD oil is off-putting to you, capsules are a decent alternative. Not only are they easier to take, but they also don’t carry any odor and flavor.

Everywhere you listen, people take CBD for a wide wide range of health concerns. Unfortunately, the CBD niche is still young, and consumers need to verify the credibility of different hemp brands on their own.

If you’re in a rush, feel free to use the recommendations from our ranking. You can also take some time to run your own research, using the same criteria we’ve applied when making this list.

References:

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics. (2020). Chronic Pain and High-impact Chronic Pain Among U.S. Adults, 2019. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db390.htm
  2. Nagarkatti, P., Pandey, R., Rieder, S. A., Hegde, V. L., & Nagarkatti, M. (2009). Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future medicinal chemistry, 1(7), 1333–1349. https://doi.org/10.4155/fmc.09.93
  3. Muller, C., Morales, P., & Reggio, P. H. (2019). Cannabinoid Ligands Targeting TRP Channels. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 11, 487. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00487 (3)
  4. Leweke, F. M., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, C. W., Hoyer, C., Klosterkötter, J., Hellmich, M., & Koethe, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational psychiatry, 2(3), e94. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2012.15
  5. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviors in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.818
  6. Argueta, D. A., Ventura, C. M., Kiven, S., Sagi, V., & Gupta, K. (2020). A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain. Frontiers in pharmacology, 11, 561. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00561 (6)
  7. Gamble, L. J., Boesch, J. M., Frye, C. W., Schwark, W. S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., Brown, H., Berthelsen, E. S., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in veterinary science, 5, 165. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00165 (7)
  8. Al-Ghezi, Z. Z., Busbee, P. B., Alghetaa, H., Nagarkatti, P. S., & Nagarkatti, M. (2019). Combination of cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), mitigates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by altering the gut microbiome. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 82, 25–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.07.028 (8)
  9. Lehmann, C., Fisher, N. B., Tugwell, B., Szczesniak, A., Kelly, M., & Zhou, J. (2016). Experimental cannabidiol treatment reduces early pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes. Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation, 64(4), 655–662. https://doi.org/10.3233/CH-168021
  10. Burstein S. (2015). Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry, 23(7), 1377–1385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2015.01.059

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

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