Is CBD Oil Legal? Legal Status of CBD in 50 States in 2023

Gavel and Judge Book with CBD Oil Illustration with Justice Scale on the Background
Written by Livvy Ashton | Last updated: January 4, 2023

Cannabis has had a rocky history in the United States. Starting in the 1920s, various states banned the use of the herb, eventually leading to the federal government banning the plant’s use under any circumstances for several decades.

Only in the 1970s did regulators consider the plant’s medical applications and begin rolling out medical programs nationwide. For quite some time, CBD wouldn’t be recognized as a medicinal agent, and regulators saw all forms of the cannabis plant as a drug — including hemp.

Now, as we inch our way towards a new decade, the landscape is much different.

The federal government recently passed a bill that differentiated two forms of the cannabis plant — hemp and marijuana — arguing that the hemp variety can’t produce the psychoactive high inherent to marijuana. They crossed hemp off the list of restricted substances, giving people open access to the plant for the first time in over 80 years.

But the landscape is continually changing. Each state has its own laws to work out in response to this federal change — and some are much slower than others.

In this article, we’ll discuss what makes some sources of CBD legal while others remain a Schedule I controlled substance.

The Legality of CBD Products by State

AlabamaConditionally LegalAlabama follows the 2018 Farm Bill where hemp-sourced CBD with 0.3% THC or less is considered legal. Any amount above the legal limit will require a medical cannabis license.
AlaskaFully LegalBoth marijuana and hemp-derived CBD oils are accepted in Alaska.
ArizonaConditionally LegalCBD oil from industrial hemp with 0.3% or less THC is legal. CBD oil containing more than 0.3% THC is considered marijuana and remains illegal.
ArkansasConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil exceeding 0.3% THC will require a medical cannabis license.
CaliforniaConditionally LegalThe state prohibits edibles containing CBD sourced from industrial hemp.
ColoradoFully LegalBoth marijuana and hemp-derived CBD oils are legal in Colorado.
ConnecticutConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical purposes while hemp derived CBD oil should follow the below 0.3% THC limit.
DelawareConditionally LegalAll hemp-derived CBD products are legal. Marijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical purposes.
District of ColumbiaFully LegalBoth marijuana and hemp-derived CBD oils are legal in DC.
FloridaConditionally LegalCBD products with a THC content higher than 0.3% are only available for medical marijuana patients in state-licensed dispensaries.
GeorgiaConditionally LegalGeorgia only allows CBD oil from hemp within the state.
HawaiiConditionally LegalCBD oil is legal as long as it comes from hemp and contains less than 0.3% THC.
IdahoConditionally LegalCBD oil is legal as long as it comes from hemp and contains less than 0.3% THC.
IllinoisFully LegalBoth marijuana and hemp-derived CBD oils are legal in Illinois.
IndianaConditionally LegalIndiana still has a strict policy in terms of marijuana-derived CBD. Both the sale and possession of marijuana CBD oil in Indiana are considered a crime.
IowaConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical purposes while hemp derived CBD oil should follow the below 0.3% THC limit.
KansasConditionally LegalAll varieties are legal so long as there is no traceable THC content; medical CBD oil is legal with license for specific conditions, provided the THC content doesn’t exceed 5%.
KentuckyConditionally LegalAll hemp-derived products are legal in Kentucky. Marijuana-derived CBD oil is banned here for both medical marijuana patients and recreational users.
LouisianaConditionally LegalCBD is legal in New Orleans as long as it comes from hemp and doesn’t contain more than 0.3% of THC.
MaineFully LegalCBD oils — may they be sourced from hemp or marijuana — is legal in Maine.
MarylandConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical marijuana patients under specific conditions.
MassachusettsConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is allowed medically and not for recreational purposes.
MichiganFully LegalBoth marijuana and hemp-derived CBD oils are legal in Michigan.
MinnesotaConditionally LegalHemp is legal in Minnesota, so is hemp-derived CBD oil. As for marijuana-based CBD products, these are allowed under some restrictions only for medical marijuana patients.
MississippiConditionally LegalHemp-based products, including CBD oil, are allowed in the state. However, marijuana-derived CBD is still illegal in Mississippi.
MissouriConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical marijuana patients under specific conditions.
MontanaConditionally LegalThe state has legalized marijuana-derived CBD oil for medical purposes. Hemp-derived cannabidiol is completely legal, and better yet, you don’t need any special permission to get it.
NebraskaConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oils are illegal in Nebraska.
NevadaFully LegalBoth marijuana and hemp-derived CBD oils are legal in Nevada.
New HampshireConditionally LegalYou can legally get marijuana-derived CBD oil, as long as you’re a medical marijuana patient supplied by your doctor.
New JerseyConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical purposes while hemp derived CBD oil should follow the below 0.3% THC limit.
New MexicoConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical marijuana patients under specific conditions.
New YorkConditionally LegalCBD oil is legal in the state as long as it contains 0.3% THC or less.
North CarolinaConditionally LegalHemp-based products, including CBD oil, are allowed in the state. However, marijuana-derived CBD is still illegal in North Carolina.
North DakotaConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical marijuana patients under specific conditions.
OhioConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical purposes while hemp derived CBD oil should follow the below 0.3% THC limit.
OklahomaConditionally LegalCannabis-derived CBD oil is legal only with medical cannabis license.
OregonFully LegalIn Oregon, the source of CBD oil doesn’t matter for legal sake because both hemp and marijuana are legal there.
PennsylvaniaConditionally LegalCBD oil exceeding 0.3% THC is legal only with medical cannabis license for specific conditions.
Rhode IslandConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical purposes while hemp derived CBD oil should follow the below 0.3% THC limit.
South CarolinaConditionally LegalHemp-based products, including CBD oil, are allowed in the state. However, marijuana-derived CBD is still illegal in South Carolina.
South DakotaConditionally LegalMedical and recreational marijuana-derived CBD is illegal in South Dakota.
TennesseeConditionally LegalPossession of marijuana-derived CBD oil in Tennessee is considered a misdemeanor.
TexasConditionally LegalThe state doesn’t permit marijuana-derived CBD for recreational use — and has a very limited medical marijuana CBD oil program.
UtahConditionally LegalHemp-derived CBD products are limited to less than 0.3% THC. Marijuana-derived products are only available to approved patients with qualifying medical problems.
VermontFully LegalThe lawmakers in Vermont have legalized CBD for all purposes.
VirginiaConditionally LegalCBD oil from marijuana must contain at least 15% of Cannabidiol (CBD) and no more than 5% THC.
WashingtonFully LegalThe state’s authorities permit the use, possession, and sales of hemp-derived CBD oil, as the THC content in such products is below 0.3%. Washington also legalized the recreational use of cannabis-derived products.
West VirginiaConditionally LegalCannabis-derived CBD oil is legal with medical cannabis license for specific conditions.
WisconsinConditionally LegalMarijuana-derived CBD oil is only allowed for medical marijuana patients under specific conditions.
WyomingConditionally LegalWyoming only legalized hemp-derived CBD and not marijuana-derived.
When the federal government in the United States comes out with a change to certain laws, the states can honor this change or produce their own state legislature to challenge the laws.

There’s no better example of states exercising their right to challenge federal laws than in the realm of cannabis laws.

After the farm bill was released, some states chose to honor this change, allowing their citizens to access hemp-derived CBD products. Others resisted, enacting laws that made possession of the non-psychoactive hemp plants illegal.

Over the past few months, many of these states have since reverted. Below is an up-to-date list of American states divided into two main categories — legal and conditionally legal states.

In the past, we had a list of illegal states, which included North Dakota, Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa — but these states have since changed their laws to allow CBD either medicinally or over the counter as a health supplement.

There are no longer any states outright banning the use of CBD.

1. Legal States

These states honor the changes in the 2018 Farm Bill completely — in these states, you’re free to purchase, possess, and use hemp-derived products, including CBD oils and capsules.

You’ll find CBD at your local dispensary, supermarkets, online, and sometimes even at local gas stations. There are no restrictions to CBD use in these states.

Most American CBD companies operate out of these states, especially in places that adapted their laws ahead of the curve — like Washington, Colorado, Oregon, and California.

2. Conditionally-Legal States

These states allow citizens to buy hemp-derived products, but there are some caveats.

In some states, such as North Dakota or Minnesota, you’ll need a doctor’s approval and a licensed medical card in order to buy cannabis products, including CBD.

In other states, like Michigan or Nebraska, CBD is both legal and illegal. The legislature in these states has yet to work out the details of the recent 2018 Farm Bill changes — making it unlikely to be able to buy CBD in these states anywhere but online.

We consider these states a legal grey area, which is more common than you’d think. It can take a long time for local governments to adapt to changes on a federal level. Right now, we’re caught in the transition period for these states.

You can expect it to be a little harder to find hemp-derived CBD products locally in all conditionally legal states.

What Is CBD and Is It Legal?

CBD is short for cannabidiol — it’s just one of over 400 other compounds in the cannabis plant and arguably the most relevant for medical use.

Cannabinoids are a unique class of compounds not exclusive to the cannabis plant. You can also find them in plants like Echinaceae or Helichrysum, but none are as abundant as Cannabis.

Cannabinoids are classified by their ability to interact with a specialized system of receptors and hormones in the body, aptly named the endocannabinoid system. End– meaning “inside the body.” Conversely, cannabinoids that come from plants, such as cannabis, are called phyto-cannabinoids.

The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory system — meaning it indirectly controls a variety of processes in the human body by either turning them up or dialing them back down. This is why compounds like CBD have such a long list of benefits and uses.

The Endocannabinoid System Regulates the Following Processes:

  • Appetite
  • Energy metabolism
  • Stress
  • Immune function
  • Reproduction
  • Sleep
  • Pain transmission
  • Temperature regulation
  • Cognition

What Is CBD Used For?

Working through the endocannabinoid system, CBD offers a wide variety of benefits to the human body. It’s used to regulate the stress response, promote sleep, regulate metabolism, and even reduce the transmission of pain signals headed to the brain.

CBD has so many uses due to its ability to interact with this centrally-regulating endocannabinoid system. This has a trickle-down effect on the rest of the body, assisting in the regulation of other organ systems all around the body.

In recent decades, science has come a long way to track the benefits of the cannabis plant and its chief cannabinoids — CBD and THC (the main psychoactive cannabinoid).

The most popular uses of CBD include:

  • Managing chronic pain
  • Promoting sleep
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Alleviating high-stress levels
  • Boosting immune function
  • Protecting cognitive health
  • Promoting optimal skin health

Over the years, it’s become harder to deny the benefits of cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, especially CBD. Thousands of scientific studies have been published highlighting either the benefits of CBD for a specific condition or defining its safety.

Even the World Health Organization recently stated that “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health-related problems associated with using pure CBD.”

In light of these reports, the world has started opening up to using CBD as a health supplement. But with some caveats related to the psychoactive compounds in the cannabis plant — namely THC.

Let’s explore this important distinction in more detail.

A Brief History of Cannabis’ Legal Battle

The marijuana plant has had a long and challenging history regarding its legal status in the United States and the rest of the world. To this day, it remains banned in most countries.

As times change and more people begin to understand the usefulness of this plant, laws are slowly starting to revisit the status of marijuana country by country.

Marijuana’s long and tortuous legal battle began in the mid-1930s in the United States. The United States government began campaigns against its use. They associated it with insanity, aggression, and criminal activity through propaganda films like Reefer Madness (released 1936).

Before this, marijuana was sold freely in pharmacies across the world.

The 1936 Geneva Trafficking Convention was a treaty aimed at a worldwide ban involving the cultivation, manufacture, and distribution of cannabis products. This treaty also included coca and opium. Although some countries chose to disregard this project, it’s what led to the regulation of marijuana in much of Europe, as well as Canada and Australia.

In 1970, the Controlled Substances Act was passed in the United States, which banned marijuana from all forms of use, including medical.

It wasn’t until recent years that marijuana regulation was revisited. The first changes were to support medicinal use and research. In 2014, then-President Barrack Obama passed the Agricultural Act of 2014. Section 7606 of the Act outlined the legal classification of hemp and allowed the use of industrial hemp for research purposes.

This was followed by changes that included the recreational use of all Cannabis products in certain states like Colorado in early 2014. This included both CBD and THC-containing extracts.

Controversy Over the Legal Status of CBD

There’s a big problem regulator face with the cannabis plant — some of the compounds it produces are powerfully medicinal, while others make users high.

Historically, regulators worldwide simply axed the benefits of the cannabis plant to keep the intoxicating parts illegal — but times have changed. People want access to the numerous health benefits of cannabinoids like CBD. After decades of lobbying and protesting, the legal status of cannabis is finally being reevaluated around the world.

In the United States, the change is slow and frustratingly complicated. Cannabis laws are different on a federal level to the state level and can differ significantly from one state to the next. Some states allow the use of CBD with medical approval only, and others are completely legal for any reason — you can even buy products at corner stores, gas stations, and even vending machines. It’s not always limited to dispensaries.

While the laws on CBD’s legalities are loosening federally, in a select few states, you can still be arrested and thrown in jail for having a bottle of CBD oil on you.

Because the laws continue to evolve around cannabis, it’s critically important that you pay attention to the local laws in your specific state and check for updates regularly.

Not All Cannabis Products Are Created Equal

There are two main kinds of cannabis — marijuana and hemp. This is an important distinction to make because it’s the most important factor when determining whether a particular product is legal or illegal.

Although both types of cannabis are the exact same species (Cannabis sativa), they produce radically different cannabinoid profiles.

Let’s cover each form of cannabis in more detail.

1. Marijuana

The first type of cannabis — marijuana — is what most people think of when they hear the word “cannabis.” These plants are a form of Cannabis sativa that produces mid to high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — the main psychoactive compound in the plant. The THC is what makes users high.

Marijuana plants are considered a Schedule I drug in the United States — putting it in the same classification as heroin and fentanyl — two of the most dangerous drugs in America.

Don’t be misled; marijuana is not a deadly drug — but the laws haven’t changed on a federal level in 80 years.

There are some exceptions on a state level, but if the federal government ever wanted to convict someone for using marijuana, it could.

2. Hemp

Hemp is another type of Cannabis sativa that produces less than 0.3% THC by dry weight. This is the sole classification for a particular cannabis plant to be considered hemp. If a particular strain produces even 0.4% THC, it’s marijuana.

Hemp isn’t held to the same legal confines as marijuana. It’s been legal for a long time in the United States, but only through rigorous license applications and approval from US regulators.

Everything changed with the release of the 2018 Farm Bill, which lifted the ban on hemp and removed it from the controlled substances act as a Schedule I drug.

Now hemp can be grown just as easily as corn or wheat in the United States. Most states honor this change and allow farmers in the state to cultivate hemp plants — some have been resisting.

As a byproduct of this evolution, supplement companies now have access to hemp as a source of nutritional products — which now falls under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate as a nutritional supplement.

The FDA has yet to make any strong stance for or against the sale of hemp-derived products in the United States, and the market has become a bit of a wild West in this regard.

Most CBD products like CBD oils, CBD capsules, edible gummies, or CBD E-liquids are made using hemp-derived CBD in order to sell these products legally.

The Major Differences Between Marijuana & Hemp

Hemp Marijuana
Species Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis sativa L.
Legal Definition Cannabis sativa plants with less than 0.3% THC by dried weight Cannabis sativa plants with more than 0.3% THC by dried weight
Psychoactivity Completely non-psychoactive (doesn’t produce a high) May have psychoactive effects (may produce a high)
Federal Legal Status No drug scheduling (completely legal) Schedule I drug (completely illegal)
State Legal Status Legal in most states, with some exceptions Legal in select states recreationally and most states with medical approval. In some states, it remains completely illegal. 

What Does the Future Look Like For CBD Products In the United States?

CBD is now available in all 50 states of America — to varying degrees. Most citizens can access the supplement in-store legally but may be hard-pressed to find it in some of the stricter states requiring medical cards.

The best bet is to source CBD products online and have them sent to your home, office, or PO box instead.

Moving forward, we expect the laws to continue to change across federal and state legislature as more people demand access to this safe and effective supplement.

The landscape is already changing, as the regulation of legal nutritional products now falls under the regulation of the FDA — which has yet to make any official statements for or against the sale and use of CBD as a nutritional supplement. People suspect an FDA crackdown is coming to companies operating in the CBD space.

Stay tuned, and we’ll be sure to keep you posted as the landscape continues to change.

Livvy is a registered nurse (RN) and board-certified nurse midwife (CNM) in the state of New Jersey. After giving birth to her newborn daughter, Livvy stepped down from her full-time position at the Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. This gave her the opportunity to spend more time writing articles on all topics related to pregnancy and prenatal care.

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